YEARS.
THE day is either natural or artificial;
the natural day is the space of twentyfour hours, (including both the
dark and light part) in which time the sun is carried by the first
mover from the east into the west, and so round the world into the east
again. The artificial day consists of twelve hours,
i.e. from the sun's rising to its
setting; and the artificial night is from the sun's setting to its
rising. The day is accounted with us for payment of money between
the sun's rising and setting; but for indictment for murder the day is
accounted from midnight to midnight, and so likewise are fasting days.
The Hebrews and Chaldeans begin their days at sun rising, and end at
the next rising.
The Jews and Italians from sunset to sunset. The Romans at
midnight. The Egyptians from noon to noon, which account astronomers
follow.
A week consists of seven mornings, or seven days, which the Gentiles
call by the names of the seven planets (which they worshipped as Gods);
the first day of the sun; the second day of the moon, &c. In
a week God made the world,
i.e.
in six days, and rested the seventh.
(141)
All civilized nations observe one day in seven, as a stated time of
worship; the Turks and Mahometans keep the sixth day of the week, or
Friday; the Jews the seventh, or Saturday; the Christians the first, or
Sunday.
Of months there are various kinds; a solar month is the space of thirty
days, in which time the sun runneth through one sign of the
zodiac.
A lunar month is that interval of time which the moon spendeth in
wandering from the sun, in her oval circuit, through the twelve signs,
until she returns to him again, (being sometimes nearer, sometimes
farther from the earth)
i.e.
from the first day of her appearing next after her change, to the last
day of her being visible, before her next change, which may be greater
or lesser, according to her motion.
The usual or common months are those set down in our almanacks,
containing some 30, some 31, and February but 28 days, according to
these verses:
Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
February twentyeight alone,
All the rest have thirtyone;
But when leapyear comes, that time
Has February twentynine. 
A year is the space of time in which the sun runs through all the 12
signs of the zodiac: containing 12 solar months, 13 lunar months,
(142)
52 weeks, 365 days, and six hours, which six hours, in four years
time, being added together, make one day, which day on every fourth
year is added to February, making that month 29 days, which at other
times is but 28; and this year with the additional day is called
leapyear.
To
find the LeapYear.
Divide the year of our Lord by 4, and if there be no remainder, it
is leapyear; but if there remains 1, 2, or 3, then that denotes the
first, second, or third after leapyear [this ignores the rule that only
centuries exactly divisible by 400 are leapyears (adopted in 1582)].
TABLES
OF
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
24

Grains [64.8 mg *]  
1

Pennyweight

dwt.

20

Pennyweights

1

Ounce 

oz.

12

Ounces 

1

Pound [0.373 kg]

lb.

By this weight are weighed jewels,
gold, silver, corn, and all liquors.
16

Drams [1.772 g]  
1

Ounce


oz.

16

Ounces 

1

Pound 

lb.

28

Pounds [0.454 kg]  
1

Quar. of a hun.

qr.

20

Hundreds 

1

Ton 

ton.

(143)
By this weight, which is now generally used in England, are weighed
butter, cheese, groceries, &c.
N.B. One pound avoirdupois is
equal to 14 oz. 11 dwts. 15½ grains troy; and one ounce troy is
equal to 1 oz. 1 dram, and something above an half, avoirdupois.
Apothecaries' Weight.

Char.

20

Grains [64.8 mg] 
1

Scruple


℈

3

Scruples 

1

Dram 

ʒ

8

Drams [3.888 g] 

1

Ounce


℥

12

Ounces 

1

Pound [0.373 kg] 

℔

By this weight apothecaries compound their medicines; but buy and sell
their drugs by avoirdupois weight.
2

Pints 

1

Quart

qrt.

4

Quarts 

1

Gallon 

gall..

63

Gallons 

1

Hogshead 

hhd.

2

Hogsheads 

1

Pipe 

pipe.

2

Pipes 

1

Tun 

tun.

2

Pints 

1

Quart


qrt.

4

Quarts 

1

Gallon 

gall.

9

Gallons 

1

Firkin 

firk.

2

Firkins 

1

Kilderkin 

kild.

2

Kilderkins 

1

Barrel 

bar.

1½ 
Barrel 

1

Hogshead 

hhd.

3

Barrels, or 2 hhds.

1

Butt 

butt.

N.B. Eight gallons make a
firkin of ale.
(144)
4

Nails 

1

Quarter 

qr.

4

Quarters 

1

Yard 

yd.

Note, An ell English is 5 quarters of a yard, and an ell Flemish is 3
quarters.
60

Seconds 

1

Minute

60

Minutes 

1

Hour

24

Hours 

1

Natural Day

7

Days

1

Week

4

Weeks

1

Month

13

Months, 1 day, and 6 hours, is


One

52

Weeks, 1 day, and 6 hours, is


Julian

365

Days, and 6 hours, is


Year.

8766

Hours, is



Note, An exact solar year is
equal to 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 48 seconds, 57 thirds: and one
lunar month is equal to 29 days, 12 hours, and 45 minutes.
8

Pints 

1

Gallon 

gall.

2

Gallons 

1

Peck 

peck.

4

Pecks 

1

Bushel 

bush.

4

Bushels 

1

Coomb 

coomb.

2

Coombs 

1

Quarter 

qr.

5

Quarters 

1

Wey 

wey.

2

Weys 

1

Last 

last.

40

Square Perches 

1

Rood

4

Roods 

1

Acre

Note, 5 feet is a geometrical pace, and
1056 geometrical paces 1 English mile.
(145)
Long Measure.
12

Inches


1

Foot

3

Feet


1

Yard

5

Yards and
½ 

1

Pole or perch

40

Poles



1

Furlong

8

Furlongs or 1760 yards

1

English mile

*
see http://www.mw.com/mw/table/weight.htm for other conversions
A MULTIPLICATION TABLE.
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

27

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

6

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

7

14

21

28

35

42

49

56

63

8

16

24

32

40

48

56

64

72

9

18

27

36

45

54

63

72

81

THE use of this table is to find how
many any one figure multiplied by another will make: suppose I wanted
to know, how many seven times eight is, I look into the table for
7 in the first rank of figures on the left hand, and for 8 in the top
line; then carrying my finger strait from 7 in the first rank of
figures, till I come to that which has the figure 8 on the top of
it, I there find 56, which is the exact number of 7 times 8, or 8
multiplied by 7. So in all other instances look for the
first figure in the lefthand rank or column, and for the figure you
want to multiply by in the first or top line, and which ever square
these two meet in, there is the amount.
The above table shews how many shillings
are contained in any number of pence from 20 to 240, and likewise how
many pence there are in any number of shillings from 1 to 20; which
will be found a great use in reckoning ma[?]ll money, and ought to be
learned by heart, [ ]os [so as? (letter dropped)] to be
ready on all occasions.